How Did The Turks Become Muslim In Year 751, Till 2020 The Republic Of Turkey Today
State Rule in Turkish States during the Islamic Period
- Turkic tribes such as the Qarluks, Yagmas and Chigils which took sides with the Arabs during the Battle of Talas between the Chinese and the Abbasids in year 751, converted to Islam and from that time until the 10th century Turks have substantially become muslims.
- Conversion to Islam has not only affected the social and cultural life but also state rule. Expeditions named as the “Turkish orld rule ideal” and embarked on with reference to the ideathat Turks were, by taking the authority to state rule (“kut”) from God, heaven sent to bring order and peace to the world, were embarked upon for spreading Islam with the embracement of Islam and the notion of “jihad”.
- “Karakhanids” were the first turco-islamic state. Ghaznavid and Seljuqi sovereigns have used the title of “Sultan”.
The importance of the Seljuqi State from the Viewpoint of Turkish History
After the gates of Anatolia were opened by the Great Seljuqs, the idea that Turks were the new patrons of Anatolia was imposed upon the Byzantine empire by the Anatolian Seljuks. Without sufficient progress being made, the Crusades had begun. These raids corroded the state but the Seljuqis stillk new how to survive. Welfare and happiness continued in Anatolia until the on golian Incursion. With the architectural artifacts built, the Turkish mark was left on Anatolia. This is why Anatolia has been named “Turkey” since the 12th century.
With the Mongolian Incursion Turkmen migration into Anatolia increased. These clans were placed along border tribes so they would protect the borders. As the borders were called Marks (boy), these clan beys were called Argraves (boybeyi). With the Seljuqi State’s loss of sovereignty, the margraves started to act independently. Hence the Era of Anatolian Beylics had begun.
The Ottoman Empire
The history of the Ottoman Empire is studied and assessed by dividing it into specific periods. These periods are termed as:
- The Beylic Period (1299 and before), the Foundation Period (1299-1453), the Period of Rise (1453-1579), the Stagnation Period(1579-1699), the Period of Decline (1699-1792) and the Period of Dissolution (1792-1922).
- The Beylic Perio: The Ottoman Beylic was a beylic belonging to the Kayi clan. Ertugrul Ghazi came and settled in and around Sogut during the Seljuqi period. Upon the decease of Ertugrul Ghazi, Osman Bey took control of the beylic. Alike the residence Turkish TV Series Ertuğrul the brother Pakistani visa nationals love and watch so much.
- The Foundation Period (1299-1453): Osman Bey, with his conquests, ascended to the position of successor of the collapsing Anatolian Seljuqi State. It is acknowledged that after the conquest of Bilecik, Yarhisar and Inegol the Ottoman State was established and 1299 is recognized as the year of establishment in historical research. In the time of Orhan Bey, who took control after Osman Bey, the conquests gained pace, Bursa and Iznik were conquered. Orhan Bey declared independence by coining his money and the Ottoman Beylic became the Ottoman State. During the Foundation Period, the Ottoman advancement spread through the Balkans.
- Edirne was conquered, Bulgaria, Greece and Serbia were seized in the Balkans. At the same time the beylics established in Anatolia after the Seljuqs, fell under the rule of the Ottoman State. During the Foundation Period, Osman Bey, Orhan Bey, Murad I, Yıldırım Beyazid, Mehmed I and Murat II have subsequently ascended to the Ottoman State power. The Foundation Period ends with the conquest of Istanbul.
- The Period of Rise (1453-1579): After substantial territory was conquered in the East and the West and the borders of the state expanded, it is acknowledged that the Ottoman State, which became an “Empire” with Fatih Sultan Mehmed’s conquest of Istanbul has thereby entered the Period of Rise. Fatih Sultan Mehmet, who ascended the throne after Murad II, conquered İstanbul in 1453 and Istanbul was declared the new capital of the empire.
- During the Period of Rise, Fatih Sultan Mehmet, Beyazid II, Yavuz Sultan Selim, Suleyman the Magnificent and Selim II ubsequently rose to the throne. Especially during the era of Suleyman the Magnificent (1520-1566) the empire lived through its brightest era.
- The Stagnation Period (1579- 1699): The Stagnation Period of the Ottoman Empire started with the decease of Sokullu Mehmet Pasha. Sokullu Mehmet Pasha served as grand vizier during the rule of Suleyman Magnificent, Selim II and Murad III. Sokullu Mehmet Pasha is an important statesman who worked for the political and military success of the state during the 14 years of his viziership and his decease is acknowledged as the transition into the stagnation period of the Ottoman Empire.
- With the ascention of inexperienced heirs to the throne and the weakening of the central authority, inner insurrecions have occurred, the restlessness has widely increased with the janissary rebellion against authority.
- The deterioration of the manorial system and the economic problems brought about by the Expeditionsto Iran and Austria have also played an important role in stagnation.
- During the stagnation period Murad III, Mehmed III, Ahmed I, Mustafa I, Othman II, Murad IV, IbrahimI, Mehmet IV, Süleyman II, Ahmet II and Mustafa II subsequently ascended to the throne.
- The Period of Decline (1699-1792): The period between the Treaty of Karlowitz signed in 1699 and the Treaty of Jassy signed in 1792 is recognized as the period of decline. The Treaty of Karlowitz is the first treaty by which the Ottoman Empire lost a great amount of territory in the west. After this date, the state was based on regaining its lost territory. During the Period of Decline, Mustafa II, Ahmed III, Mahmud I, Othman III, Mustafa III, Abdülhamit I and Selim III subsequently ascended the throne. Period of Dissolution (1792-1922): The period in which the Ottoman Empire underwent the period of collapse and disolution is named as the Period of Dissolution. This period starts with the Crimean War which the Ottoman Empire declared against Russia in 1787 to take Crimea back, the incidents with occurred to the disadvantage of the Ottoman Empire with the participation of Austria in the war and the subsequent signing of the Jassy Treaty in 1792.
- During the Period of Dissolution, Selim III, Mustafa IV, Mahmud II, Abdulmecit I, Abdulaziz I, Murad V, Abdulhamit II, Sultan Mehmet Reshad and Sultan Mehmet Vahdettin subsequently ascended to the throne. With the abolition of the sultanate in 1922 the Ottoman Era came to an end.
The Form Of The Turkish Republic
- The fall the Ottoman Empire went through in an economic and military sense, caused the empire territory to be occupied after World War I, on 23 Nisan 1920 the Grand National Assembly of Turkey was established, after the war of independence waged by the Turkish nation under the leadership of Gazi Mustafa Kemal Atatürk the foundation of the “Republic of Turkey” was proclaimed at the Grand National Assembly of Turkey on 29 Ekim 1923. With the proclamation of the Republic, important changes were experienced in Turkish cultural and art life. As the new state was built upon national culture, studies on the Turkish language, literature and history have gained speed in this period.
- The foundations of the new state were based on Turkish culture above all. This novelties experienced in a cultural sense, is also seen in state rule and system. Novelties such as the proclamation of the Republic, the abolition of the caliphate sultanate and adoption of the Latin alphabet have provided for the emergence of the modern Republic of Turkey." and he said Ottoman Property Osmanli Yali Bosphorus Mansion Marmara sea Istanbul.